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Heart Transplant Types, Risk Factors, Diagnosis and Surgeons

Heart Transplant Diagnosis

  • 2021-06-18

A heart transplant is a surgical procedure to replace the diseased heart from a patient with a healthy one from an organ donor.

A heart transplant is a surgical procedure to remove coronary arteries and some of the adjacent cells when the organ becomes ill. It involves replacing the older appendage with a new one obtained from a donor.

Usually, the organ is taken from a deceased donor. Doctors decide to remove a person’s heart and place it into the deceased person’s body when they become sanguine that the person is brain-dead.

Cardiac substitution is the optimum treatment option. The clinic will appoint a professional healthcare team to ensure that all other methods are tried and h/she is fit enough to take the treatment strain.


Such a treatment can be necessary for both an adult or child member. For the latter, disease occurs due to congenital heart defect or cardiomyopathy.

Orthotopic and heterotopic transplantation are the two major types that doctors use while transmuting a cardiac organ. Of these, the former involves a median sternotomy where the patient’s limb is removed and a new heart from the donor is inserted.

It includes two methods:

  • In the standard biatrial technique, the surgeon uses atrial anastomosis while connecting the donor’s organ with the recipient.
  • Another process called the bicaval technique involves complete excise of the native atria of the recipient.

The heterotopic method is seldom used; patients with pulmonary hypertension are usually treated with this process.

Another method called the multiorgan transplant exists too. The procedure has three subtypes including:

  • Heart-kidney transplant where the patient’s renal organ has also failed besides the coronary.
  • People with certain liver and cardiac complications are treated with a Heart-liver transplant.
  • If you have developed a conjugal condition where your lung is also involved besides the cardiac organ, a Heart-lung transplant will do well for you.

Risks associated

Like most other surgery types, cardiac transmutation involves common risks that include bleeding, infection, and blood coagulation.

Besides those mentioned above, the treatment carries several other perils too.

  • Primary graft failure: It means that the donor's heart is not functioning. Patients expire within a few months after the procedure.
  • Thickening of arteries: It is associated with hardening too. It hinders blood circulation through coronary arteries. You can have a cardiac arrest, failure, or arrhythmias into the organ even death also.
  • Side-effects from the medications offered.
  • Rejection of the donor's heart: Our innate immune system identifies the new organ as a foreign object. Therefore, it tries to resist the appendage from functioning.

Usually, this occurs within the first few days after the surgery. Your doctor will provide you with an immunosuppressant to combat such effects.


Diagnosis in most of the transplantation cases comprises evaluation of the proposed candidate’s fitness to take the operational strain. His/her temperament to take medications for the remaining years in life is also taken into account.

Such evaluation tests include:

Psychological and social assessment

Your treatment team comprises specialists from psychological and technical fields. They will examine if you are ready to overcome the various psychological and social issues related to the method.

These include mental stress, managing finances for the treatment, and the ability to arrange for a support team. Properly adjusted factors determine your life quality post-procedure.

Blood Tests

Blood tests help the team of doctors to trace out a suitable donor match for you. A perfect match organ suffers less from inside rejection.

Other disease-finding examinations

Diagnostics tests are chosen so that these can help in the proper assessment of the deceased’s lungs. They get an idea of your overall health situation too.

These tests include several X-rays, USG, CT scans, and pulmonary function tests. A dental examination is also done.

A woman needs to do a Pap test, gynecology evaluation, and a mammogram.

Blocked preparations

Your medical team arrests chances of infection development by offering vaccines for several infectious diseases after the procedure.

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