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Bone Marrow Transplants Types, Risk Factors, and Diagnosis

Bone Marrow Transplants Types

  • 2021-04-26

A bone marrow transplant may be a procedure performed to exchange bone marrow that has been damaged or destroyed by disease, infection, or chemotherapy. This procedure involves transplanting blood stem cells, which visit the bone marrow where they produce new blood cells and promote the growth of the latest marrow.

Bone marrow transplant involves infusing healthy blood-forming body units of the stalk into the patient’s body. These cells replace damaged and diseased spongy tissues. Thus, doctors often call the process a stem cell transplant.

You may need the process if a diagnostic test or predatory examinations prove that the squishy bony body matters have stopped working and healthy blood units are no more produced in your body.

Treatment types

Surgeons follow two types of procedures while performing the process. The decision about the types depends on the physiological conditions that made you a suitable candidate.

Autologous Transplants

In this process, surgeons use the victim’s stem cells. The process involves collecting the body units before you have a damaging therapy like chemotherapy or radiation therapy to relinquish carcinomas.

Doctors implant these cells after retrieving them from the cell bank. Processing in this way lessens risks or serious post-surgery complications.

Allogeneic Transplants

Doctors will use donor cells while conducting this process. They confirm a genetic match before continuing with the process.

Surgeons opt for the procedure when the diseased person’s fundamental body units are severely damaged; these cannot be harvested for later use. Despite carrying the genetic match between the receiver and donor, the process carries high complication risks, like GVHD.

There are risks of hostility from the deceased’s innate immune system. However, you will get medications to counter such rejections.  Doctors can’t ensure its absolute success due to these two factors.


Bone marrow transplants, particularly the allogenic ones, can pose serious threats to your overall health. For grave complications, hospital admission may also be required.

Risks depend on the type of disease you are carrying. Other factors include your transplant type, age, and gross medical condition.

Common complications associated with the process include:

  • Stem cells failure
  • Organ damage.
  • Infections.
  • Glaucoma in your eyes.
  • Infertility.
  • A new type of cancerous growth.
  • Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD); it happens in allogenic transplant only.
  • Death.

Doctors decide about the befit type for you after weighing the benefits and disadvantages that you may have with the procedure.


Doctors become confident about your need for a bone marrow transplant after going through a comprehensive medical checkup. For a final pick-up, h/she may order several tests and procedures. These work in assessing your disease status and your general medical inclination. The entire episode may take several weeks to complete.

Stem cells collection

For autologous transplant

A pathological doctor conducts aphaeresis; it is done in an autologous transplant method.

Before getting into the procedure, you will get growth factor medications through IV injections. It increases stalk body units production. Also, it helps move the entire stem cells into your circulating blood to facilitate the collection process.

Blood in this process is withdrawn from a vein; it is then circulated through a particular device. It segregates the entire blood into stem cells and other constituents. Stalks are collected and stored in the bank for future use.

For allogeneic transplant

Under this process, stalked body units come from a donor body. These body units are collected from his/her blood or bone marrow.

This method has a subtype called the cord blood transplant. In this process, the required body units are collected from umbilical cord blood. It happens in cases of transfusion to a child. The mother can let their umbilical cord for their child’s benefit.

Conditioning process

It follows the entire pre-transplant tests and procedures. While continuing with it, doctors conduct chemotherapy and radiation therapy. These are needed to:

  • Destroy malignant cells previously present in your body system.
  • Suppress the immune system.
  • Bone marrows are prepared for receiving the new stem cells.

Type of conditioning process that you are going to have depended on various factors. These include:

  • Type of transference you are going to have.
  • A disease that your doctor treats for you.
  • Your gross medical condition.

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