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Bone Marrow Transplant Types, Procedure & Risks

Bone Marrow Transplant in India

  • 2021-10-06

Bone Marrow Transplant is also known as Stem Cell can be used to treat particular types of cancer. Find Bone Marrow Transplant Types, Procedure & Risks.

Donor risks

The donor may have an allergy to anesthesia. 

Doctors usually recommend general anesthesia. People do not suffer from this application barring some exceptions.

A few people with an allergy to anesthesia may get a severe reaction; therefore, you should inform your doctor beforehand. 

Their potential risks include:

  • Pneumonia.
  • Stroke.
  • Heart attack.
  • Other post-operative confusions.

Bone marrow harvesting usually does not create an issue. Only 2.4 percent of donors have suffered during harvest performance.

Side Effects

Stem cell transplant causes Graft-Versus-Host-diseases. It is one of the top common among the procedure risks.

People usually get to it after six months following the organ transference. 

The disease has particular symptoms. The doctor will alert you about this when releasing you from the clinic. Inform him about any such arrival with acute promptness.

The prevalent symptoms include:

  • An abdominal pain. Often it accompanies cramps, diarrhea, nausea, and vomiting.
  • Skin rash or blisters. Sometimes, it creates itchy red patches on the skin.
  • Jaundice.

A lot of people have allergies to anesthetic medicines. They usually develop the following symptoms with such medicinal applications:

  • Sore throat. Often this occurs due to the breathing tube.
  • Mild nausea.
  • Vomiting.

Other side effects of Bone Marrow Transplant include:

  • Bruising at the incision site.
  • You could experience stiffness at the harvesting spot.
  • You can feel stiffness at the harvesting spot.
  • Hip or back achiness.
  • Pain and stiffness would debar you from normal walking for a few days.

Fatigue may also grab you for some weeks. Usually, it goes off with marrow replacement. 


Within 30 days after the stem cell transplant, the care team monitors for signs. These indications confirm that the transfused cells have gone to the bone marrow. These will start producing new and healthy cells in the following order.

Medical science calls this an ‘engraftment.’

The central monitor team also looks for WBC and platelets. There are, however, certain cases where the engraftment has occurred after 30 days;

It is the care team’s responsibility to inform you about the progress status.

The donor needs to stay in the hospital till engraftment occurs in full swing. H/she should admit to the hospital during this period. If a hospital stay is not possible, you must keep attachment to the supervising clinic. It will help them do the proper checkups whenever they feel it is needed.

Once h/she is backing home, a lengthy process will be pursuing. You will be weak and unfit for work for at least six months after the surgery.

Recovery time depends on the patient’s overall medical condition.

Signs and symptoms during recovery

The patient is susceptible to infection throughout the recovery period post-transplant. 

The doctor prescribes antibiotics for the first two weeks. It helps combat the infection.

The signs and symptoms of infection are:

  • Frequently occurred diarrhea. Sometimes, this could be bloody too.
  • Breathing issues during rest periods.
  • Occult weakness.
  • Feeling of chill or hot.
  • Swell or redness in the IV insertion point.
  • Eating or drinking could be a problem.

Donating Bone marrow Stem Cells

During the process, the doctor draws our bone marrow stem cells either from blood or bone marrow. Then h/she places those in the recipient’s body.

Stem cells are of two types:

  • Embryonic stem cells.
  • Bone marrow stem cells.

The researchers study the former in therapeutic cloning and other similar researchers. In the latter, bone marrow cells are formed and mature in the bone marrow. They release this into our bloodstream. 

Doctors use these in cancer treatment.

Stem cell collection from blood is more common these days. Medical science identifies this as peripheral stem cell donation.

People choose to donate their bone marrow stem cells when one of their close kin needs this. However, your blood group and several other physiological features must match with the recipient.

The expectations

Bone marrow donation

It is a surgical process. Doctors held it under general anesthesia.

Your surgeon inserts a needle through the skin and into the bone. Thus, h/she can draw the marrow out of the bone. The process duration is approximately two hours.

Your care team will take you to the recovery team to watch the wearing of the anesthetic effect. 

As the anesthesia wears out, they will transfer you to a hospital room. The nursing will conduct other care phases there. 

You will be released from the clinic once you are fully alert and confident about eating and drinking of your own.

Peripheral blood stem cell donation 

During this process, the surgeon collects stem cells from your bloodstream. An injection or medication will help stimulate the blood stem cells production in blood. It maximizes the stem cells availability.

Doctors start the medication process several days before the scheduled donation date.

The surgeon places a catheter in an arm vein.

Then he guides the stream through a machine. It takes the stem cells out. The device returns the unused components into the bloodstream.

They call the process apheresis. The process also takes around two composite hours.

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