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Bone Marrow Transplant: Complications, Benefits, Recovery

Bone Marrow Transplant Complications

  • 2021-04-26

Bone Marrow Transplant: Complications, Benefits, Recovery

Bone Marrow Transplantation Recovery

Engraftment is the state when the cells the patient received from the transplant start producing healthy cells. Usually, it is the number of white blood cells that begins to increase, which points to the success of the process. A bone marrow transplant can cure the disease in whole or in part.

It usually takes about 3-4 months to recover after the procedure. But it might take almost a full year to fully recover. Various factors determine how long the recovery will take- the condition that the patient is treated for, how well the donor fits, radiation, chemotherapy, and the location of the transplant.

Risks of Bone Marrow Transplantation

Minor complications that may arise from bone marrow transplantation include:

Loss of taste

Prolonged Headache.

Hypotension

Chances of high fever.

Chest pain.

Nausea

Difficulty in breathing

Chills

Serious risks associated with the bone marrow procedure include:

Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD)

Stem cell (graft) failure

Organ damage

Infections

Cataracts

Infertility

New cancers

Death

Graft-versus-host disease: potential risk of stem cells coming from donors

If the patient is given a transplant that uses stem cells from a donor (allogeneic transplantation), he/she may be at risk of developing graft-versus-host disease (GVHD).

This condition happens when the donor stem cells that make up the new immune system see all the tissues and organs in the body as a foreign agent and attack them.

 

Two types of GVHD: acute and chronic are there. Acute GVHD usually occurs earlier, in the first few months after the transplant. It usually affects the skin, digestive tract, or liver. Chronic GVHD usually develops later and can affect many organs.

Chronic GVHD signs and symptoms include:

Muscle pain

Dry eyes

Rash

Jaundice

Dry mouth

Mouth sores

Diarrhea

Nausea

Vomiting

Pros and Cons of Autologous and Allogenous Transplantation

Pros of Autologous Transplantation

Available for most of the patients

No need to search for matched donors

No complication of GVHD

Partial engraftment will be beneficial

Pros of Allogenic Transplantation

Complete replacement of host cells with donor cells

Has the potential to eliminate viral reservoirs

Genetic modifications may not be required

 

Cons of Autologous Transplantation

May require a 100% match

Reduced viral reservoirs but cannot be eliminated

May require combination therapies

Cons of Autologous Transplantation

Need for matched donors

Greater chance of complication of GVHD

Common limitations for both the process are as follows:

Pros of Allogenic Transplantation

Complete replacement of host cells with donor cells

Has the potential to eliminate viral reservoirs

Genetic modifications may not be required

Cons of Autologous Transplantation

Need for matched donors

Greater chance of complication of GVHD

Costs are considerably high for both the procedures

Both have associated underlying complications of their own.

Not feasible in remote locations i.e., it is difficult to find donors in remote locations.

Why choose India for the treatment/ Surgery?

India has several benefits when it comes to health services. Some of them are listed below:

1. Saving Costs.

The cost of medical treatment in India is significantly lower compared to the same treatments in the developed world. Treatment in India is far less expensive than elsewhere in the world. Almost every treatment in India is about 50-80 percent cheaper than in Europe, the United States, the United Kingdom, and Oceania.

2. Highly qualified medical professionals

Not only have the highest and world-class standards been achieved by India's leading hospitals and medical facilities, but so have the professionals working in them. Physicians, surgeons, and nurses have been meticulously trained to the highest levels, while many specialists have researched the best medical institutes in the world, with some of them even leading the field in which they expertise. Many Indian physicians and surgeons in India are visiting faculties in most developed countries such as the United States, the United Kingdom, and Europe. In Indian hospitals, most surgeons and doctors are certified by American Board Certificates, which means higher standards, better accuracy, and care.

 

3. Internationally Accredited Hospitals

Indian Healthcare Industry has hospitals with more than 21+ JCI, 266+ NABH Accreditation, ISO Certification, and other medical certifications. This gives the hospital a tangible and visible commitment to ensure a secure environment for its patients and staff continuously.

4. India’s Incredible state of the art medical technology

Indian Hospitals are equipped with state-of-the-art technology that helps them deliver the highest level of medical care and service.

 

5. Excellent Service

Indians are proud that their cultural identity has earned them a well-deserved reputation for compassion and warm hospitality. Hospitals themselves offer facilities that are usually only available in 5-star hotels, and patients from all over the world can enjoy top-notch private rooms, translation services, room service, etc.

6. Multilingual facilities

India Hospitals have 24/7 nursing services and staffs are experienced in helping foreign patients, with more than 30 hospitals employing English-speaking staff and many providing linguists in a wide variety of international languages, including Arabic, French, Russian, Pashto, German, Chinese and multilingual interpreters, so that the patients will rest assured that there will be no communication problems.

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