• Pain: Pain in the affected bone is the most common sign of bone cancer. In the beginning, constant pain is not experienced. It can be worse at night or when the bone is used, for example, pain in the legs when walking.
• Swelling: Suddenly, swelling won’t occur in the region of pain. We can feel a lump or mass. Cancers that are present in neck bones will lead to a lump in the back of the throat that will cause trouble swallowing or make it problematic to breathe.
• Fractures: Bones become weak due to cancer, but that will not lead to bone breaks or fracture. People with a fracture due to a bone tumor generally exhibits sudden severe pain in a bone that had been sore for a few periods.
Other symptoms related to bone tumors include:
• Weight loss
• Night sweats
• Swelling around a bone
The cause for most bone cancers is still unknown. A small number of bone cancers are linked to hereditary factors, while the rest are linked to earlier radiation exposure. However, scientists have found that bone cancers DNA can cause normal bone cancers by mutations (defects) in DNA that activate oncogenes or inactivate tumor suppressor genes. Few people with cancer have DNA mutations that they inherited from a parent. The risk of developing the disease is increased in the case of mutations.
The most dangerous of all types of bone cancers are Primary bone cancer. They are formed directly in the bones or nearby tissue, such as cartilage. Secondary cancer can also be spread from another part of the human body.
the following are the types of primary cancer:
• Osteosarcoma (osteogenic sarcoma): Osteosarcoma, mostly affects adolescents and children but is also found in adults. It has the chance to arise at the tips of the long bones in the arms and legs. In the shoulders, hips, or other regions Osteosarcoma can start. They affect the hard tissues which are the outermost layer of bones.
• Multiple myeloma (MM): This type of cancer occurs cancer cells grow in the bone marrow and lead to tumors. MM generally harms older age people. The most common type of primary bone cancer.
• Chondrosarcoma: It can be seen in the pelvis, thigh areas, and on the shoulders of older adults. The subchondral tissue is affected, the hard connective tissue between the bones. This is the second most commonly found primary cancer.
• Ewing sarcoma: Rare cancer that starts either in the soft tissues surrounding the bones or directly in the bones of children and young adults.
Treatment depends on:
• the stage of cancer
• our age
• our overall health
• the size and location of the tumor
• chemotherapy drugs for multiple myeloma
• inflammation and discomfort can be relieved using pain medications.
• bone loss and protect bone structure can be prevented using bisphosphonates. • to prohibit or stop the growth of cancerous cells cytotoxic drugs can be used.
• X-rays It can provide the location, size, and shape of a tumor in the bone. If x-rays show that an abnormal area may be cancer, the doctor is likely to recommend special imaging tests.
• Bone Scan
• Computer Tomography scan
• Magnetic resonance Imaging scan
• Positron emission tomography scan
• Blood Tests.
• Biopsy: For cancer cell examination a sample of bone tissues can be extracted. To diagnose bone cancer this is the most reliable way. The core needle biopsy includes inserting a long, thin needle into the bone and removing a sample, in case of open biopsy an incision is made in the target bone region, and surgically a sample of a group of cells is removed.
From the outer part of the bone sample of tissue or cells is taken to test for bone biopsy to check for cancer or other bone diseases.
These include two types:
• The use of a special type of needle to remove the sample for a needle biopsy. • In open biopsy a piece of the bone sample through an opening in your skin is removed.
Following the procedure After bone cancer is diagnosed is staging where the physicians will determine whether it is spreading, and if so, how far.
After a cancer is diagnosed, staging gives critical data about the extent to which cancer is present in the body and the expected response to treatment. Staging and grading of the tumor enables physicians to decide the best course of treatment and the most likely outcomes
The cells of the tumor are observed under a microscope in grading and assessing their difference from a healthy bone group of the cell. In grade 1 tumor the cells are similar to bone tissue, while a grade 3 tumor has more abnormal cells and shows a more aggressive cancer.
A tumor depicts its size and spread. Several different features can form the different stages so that each stage has two sub-stages in addition to stage 3.
The survival rate of bone cancer patients depends on the type of bone cancer and the extent to which it has spread already. for all bone cancers in adults and children about 70% is the five-year overall survival rate. For Chondrosarcomas in adults the overall five-year survival rate of approximately 80%.
Nearly 60% to 80% is localized for osteosarcomas five-year survival rates. 15 to 30% is the survival rate if the cancer is spread beyond bones. Improved results can be observed in the case of Steosarcomas if they are present in the leg or arm. As compared to men or older patients, younger patients and women also tend to have a better prognosis.
Perpetual sarcomas have a 5-year survival rate of around 70% when seen in a localized stage. If they have spread outside of the bone, the survival rate drops to 15-30%. Factors associated with a better prognosis for Ewing's sarcoma include smaller tumor size, less than 10 years of age, and cancer in an arm or leg and a good response Chemotherapy drugs