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Bone Marrow Transplant - Types, Risks, Procedure, Recovery

Bone Marrow Transplant - Types, Risks, Procedure, Recovery

Bone marrow transplant involves infusing healthy blood-forming body units of the stalk into the patient’s body. These cells replace damaged and diseased spongy tissues. Thus, doctors often call the process a stem cell transplant.

You may need the process if a diagnostic test or predatory examinations prove that the squishy bony body matters have stopped working and healthy blood units are no more produced in your body. A bone marrow transplant may be a procedure performed to exchange bone marrow that has been damaged or destroyed by disease, infection, or chemotherapy. This procedure involves transplanting blood stem cells, which visit the bone marrow where they produce new blood cells and promote the growth of the latest marrow.

Treatment Types

Surgeons follow two types of procedures while performing the process. The decision about the types depends on the physiological conditions that made you a suitable candidate.

Autologous Transplants

In this process, surgeons use the victim’s stem cells. The process involves collecting the body units before you have a damaging therapy like chemotherapy or radiation therapy to relinquish carcinomas.

Doctors implant these cells after retrieving them from the cell bank. Processing in this way lessens risks or serious post-surgery complications.

Allogeneic Transplants

Doctors will use donor cells while conducting this process. They confirm a genetic match before continuing with the process.

Surgeons opt for the procedure when the deceased person’s fundamental body units are severely damaged; these cannot be harvested for later use. Despite carrying the genetic match between the receiver and donor, the process carries high complication risks, like GVHD.

There are risks of hostility from the deceased’s innate immune system. However, you will get medications to counter such rejections.  Doctors can’t ensure its absolute success due to these two factors.

Risks

Bone marrow transplants, particularly the allogenic ones, can pose serious threats to your overall health. For grave complications, hospital admission may also be required.

Risks depend on the type of disease you are carrying. Other factors include your transplant type, age, and gross medical condition.

Common complications associated with the process include:

  • Stem cells failure
  • Organ damage.
  • Infections.
  • Glaucoma in your eyes.
  • Infertility.
  • A new type of cancerous growth.
  • Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD); happens in allogenic transplants only.
  • Death.

Doctors decide about the befit type for you after weighing the benefits and disadvantages that you may have with the procedure.

Diagnosis

Doctors become confident about your need for a bone marrow transplant after going through a comprehensive medical checkup. For a final pick-up, h/she may order several tests and procedures. These work in assessing your disease status and your general medical inclination. The entire episode may take several weeks to complete.

Stem cells collection

For autologous transplant

A pathological doctor conducts aphaeresis; it is done in an autologous transplant method.

Before getting into the procedure, you will get growth factor medications through IV injections. It increases stalk body units production. Also, it helps move the entire stem cells into your circulating blood to facilitate the collection process.

Blood in this process is withdrawn from a vein; it is then circulated through a particular device. It segregates the entire blood into stem cells and other constituents. Stalks are collected and stored in the bank for future use.

For allogeneic transplant

Under this process, stalked body units come from a donor body. These body units are collected from his/her blood or bone marrow.

This method has a subtype called the cord blood transplant. In this process, the required body units are collected from umbilical cord blood. It happens in cases of transfusion to a child. The mother can let their umbilical cord for their child’s benefit.

Conditioning process

It follows the entire pre-transplant tests and procedures. While continuing with it, doctors conduct chemotherapy and radiation therapy. These are needed to:

  • Destroy malignant cells previously present in your body system.
  • Suppress the immune system.
  • Bone marrows are prepared for receiving the new stem cells.

Type of conditioning process that you are going to have depends on various factors. These include:

  • Type of transference you are going to have.
  • A disease that your doctor treats for you.
  • Your gross medical condition.

Bone Marrow Transplantation Recovery

Engraftment is the state when the cells the patient received from the transplant start producing healthy cells. Usually, it is the number of white blood cells that begins to increase, which points to the success of the process. A bone marrow transplant can cure the disease in whole or in part.

It usually takes about 3-4 months to recover after the procedure. But it might take almost a full year to fully recover. Various factors determine how long the recovery will take- the condition that the patient is treated for, how well the donor fits, radiation, chemotherapy, and the location of the transplant.

Risks of Bone Marrow Transplantation

Minor complications that may arise from bone marrow transplantation include:

Loss of taste

Prolonged Headache.

Hypotension

Chances of high fever.

Chest pain.

Nausea

Difficulty in breathing

Chills

Serious risks associated with the bone marrow procedure include:

Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD)

Stem cell (graft) failure

Organ damage

Infections

Cataracts

Infertility

New cancers

Death

Graft-versus-host disease: potential risk of stem cells coming from donors

If the patient is given a transplant that uses stem cells from a donor (allogeneic transplantation), he/she may be at risk of developing graft-versus-host disease (GVHD).

This condition happens when the donor stem cells that make up the new immune system see all the tissues and organs in the body as a foreign agent and attack them.

Two types of GVHD: acute and chronic are there. Acute GVHD usually occurs earlier, in the first few months after the transplant. It usually affects the skin, digestive tract, or liver. Chronic GVHD usually develops later and can affect many organs.

Chronic GVHD signs and symptoms include:

Muscle pain

Dry eyes

Rash

Jaundice

Dry mouth

Mouth sores

Diarrhea

Nausea

Vomiting

Pros and Cons of Autologous and Allogenous Transplantation

Pros of Autologous Transplantation

Available for most of the patients

No need to search for matched donors

No complication of GVHD

Partial engraftment will be beneficial

Pros of Allogenic Transplantation

Complete replacement of host cells with donor cells

Has the potential to eliminate viral reservoirs

Genetic modifications may not be required

Cons of Autologous Transplantation

May require a 100% match

Reduced viral reservoirs but cannot be eliminated

May require combination therapies

Cons of Autologous Transplantation

Need for matched donors

Greater chance of complication of GVHD

Common limitations for both processes are as follows:

Pros of Allogenic Transplantation

Complete replacement of host cells with donor cells

Has the potential to eliminate viral reservoirs

Genetic modifications may not be required

Cons of Autologous Transplantation

Need for matched donors

Greater chance of complication of GVHD

Costs are considerably high for both the procedures

Both have associated underlying complications of their own.

Not feasible in remote locations i.e., it is difficult to find donors in remote locations.

Why choose India for the treatment/ Surgery?

India has several benefits when it comes to health services. Some of them are listed below:

1. Saving Costs.

The cost of medical treatment in India is significantly lower compared to the same treatments in the developed world. Treatment in India is far less expensive than elsewhere in the world. Almost every treatment in India is about 50-80 percent cheaper than in Europe, the United States, the United Kingdom, and Oceania.

2. Highly qualified medical professionals

Not only have the highest and world-class standards been achieved by India’s leading hospitals and medical facilities, but so have the professionals working in them. Physicians, surgeons, and nurses have been meticulously trained to the highest levels, while many specialists have researched the best medical institutes in the world, with some of them even leading the field in which they expertise. Many Indian physicians and surgeons in India are visiting faculties in most developed countries such as the United States, the United Kingdom, and Europe. In Indian hospitals, most surgeons and doctors are certified by American Board Certificates, which means higher standards, better accuracy, and care.

3. Internationally Accredited Hospitals

Indian Healthcare Industry has hospitals with more than 21+ JCI, 266+ NABH Accreditation, ISO Certification, and other medical certifications. This gives the hospital a tangible and visible commitment to ensure a secure environment for its patients and staff continuously.

4. India’s Incredible state of the art medical technology

Indian Hospitals are equipped with state-of-the-art technology that helps them deliver the highest level of medical care and service.

5. Excellent Service

Indians are proud that their cultural identity has earned them a well-deserved reputation for compassion and warm hospitality. Hospitals themselves offer facilities that are usually only available in 5-star hotels, and patients from all over the world can enjoy top-notch private rooms, translation services, room service, etc.

6. Multilingual facilities

India Hospitals have 24/7 nursing services and staff are experienced in helping foreign patients, with more than 30 hospitals employing English-speaking staff and many providing linguists in a wide variety of international languages, including Arabic, French, Russian, Pashto, German, Chinese and multilingual interpreters, so that the patients will rest assured that there will be no communication problems.

A bone marrow transplant may be a procedure performed to exchange bone marrow that has been damaged or destroyed by disease, infection, or chemotherapy. This procedure involves transplanting blood stem cells, which visit the bone marrow where they produce new blood cells and promote the growth of the latest marrow.

Low Cost for Bone Marrow Transplant in India

The cost of Bone Marrow Transplant varies widely. It ranges between USD 25000 to USD 50000. It varies, facility to facility and surgeon to surgeon also. It also depends on the procedure recommended by the doctor and the patient health before the procedure.

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