Human Organs and Tissues - Donation, Transplantation

Human Organs And Tissues - Donation, Transplantation

human organ donation involves the surgical removal of it. The process may also comprise the removal of tissue. Persons offering their limbs become organ donors. The receiving persons thus become recipients. A person requires this when a vital limb stops functioning. It may also stop performing due to damage by disease or injury. The procedure is landmark progress in the modern medical sciences. Tragically, the process often suffers due to a lack of donors as a whole.

Organs and tissues you can offer for transplantation

Doctors consider several organs for moving. These include both the kidney and liver. Physicians also consider the following organs:

  • Pancreas.
  • Lung.
  • Intestine.
  • Heart.
  • Heart Valves.
  • Middle ear.
  • Corneas.
  • Skin.
  • Bone and Bone Marrow.
  • Connective tissues.

Surgeons also conduct another combination procedure. They perform several structural transplants at one shot. 

We call it the vascularized composite allographs. The structures include:

  • Bone.
  • Muscles.
  • Skin.
  • Blood vessels.
  • Uterus.
  • Various connective tissues.

Process Types

We observe two types of organ donation. These include:

  • Living donation
  • Deceased donation.

Living Limb Substitution

When a person donates a part of an effective appendage, it forms a living donation. The person gets permission provided such contribution does not hamper the physiological activities.

Doctors allow them to donate any of the following limbs:

  • A kidney. 
  • A portion of the pancreas.
  • Part of the liver.

To become a living donor, a person must have completed 18 years of age. 

A living donor can be of the following types:

  • Living near related donors: These people are parents, siblings, or friends of the recipients. They may also be close kin or nearest friend. 
  • Spouses can also act as living donors.
  • Living non-near relative donors: These people do not have any close relationship with the recipients. These people donate out of affection. Their attachment with the recipients forms the basis of their activities.
  • SWAP providers: Authorities permit these cases when the near relatives act as donors. Under these cases, the living near-relative donor is incompatible with the recipient. 

The first pair of donors match with the second recipient group and vice-versa.

Deceased Donation

You can disclose your willingness to become a subscriber. You can do it through formal registration. There is no restriction about age, race, or gender. Your decision becomes effective after your death. If the subscriber’s death happens before attending maturity, the authority will have to procure the consent of the near relation or legal heirs.

Organ or Tissue Transplant

Your care team will put your name on the National waiting list. Before doing so, the multi-disciplinary team will evaluate you. These tests will also help them to declare your fitness for the organ transplantation process.

Different transplant units have various criteria to accept candidates for transplant. The transplant tests declare your fitness for the process. The care team adds you to the national waiting list. You can do such checking in different clinics. Be sure to check each clinic’s guidelines. It will help you decide about a primary care provider. When an organ becomes available, the candidate needs to retest to determine compatibility. 

Donor qualities

People of all ages can apply for being appendage contributors. Medical authorities test every deceased for their donor compatibility. The age of the dead donor is a prime determinant factor.

Determining qualities

Individuals willing to become organ donors need to go through several processes. These include:

  • Joining the donor registry: The registry is a legal undertaking. It informs your consent for the anatomical gifts. 
  • You can also join the registry team by filling out a ‘Document of Gift’ form.
  • Alternatively, you can sign an organ donor card. Carrying this card will reflect your willingness to become a benefactor.
  • Your family members and other closed relations must know about your willingness to become an appendage subscriber.
  • Let your family healthcare provider know that you are willing to become the donor upon your death. 
  • Also, inform the family lawyer and religious leader about your decision.

Other relevant information

  • The willing person or the family need not pay anything. Becoming an organ donor is a cost-free process.
  • In case of deceased contribution, the person must expire within 90 minutes of life-sustaining treatments withdrawal.
  • This clause is applicable for both living and deceased subscribers.
  • Organ harvesting is a surgical procedure. Only trained medical professionals can do it. However, they must have the required efficiency.
  • Family members can have traditional funeral services after the organ procurement process.
  • You cannot donate an organ if you die outside a hospital. However, you can donate your tissues in such circumstances.
  • Australian health organization has clearly explained the reason. It argues that their bodies will require artificial ventilation for some days. It helps them to prove that the death had occurred in a way that makes contribution feasible. 

Maintaining human rights, Organ allocation procedure, Eligibility accession, and Legal, Social and Ethical Issues.

Organ Transplantation involves a surgical method. The surgeon removes a healthy organ from the body of the donor. Then he transfers the same into the body of another person. The latter is suffering from organ failure or injury.

The process is massive surgery. Therefore it carries several potential risks and drawbacks. These include organ rejection. Here, the innate immune system declines to accept the infused organ. It identifies the new one as an alien and attacks it.

Organ recipients need to cope up with a lot of emotions. In the following lines, I am going to narrate a few of those.

Is organ transplant ethical?

Organ transplantation is a life-saving procedure. Thus, the process has enough potential to be considered an ethical one. 

Yet, many critics think otherwise. They feel confused to declare Organ Transplants as an entire ethical process.

Their confusion starts from the question relating to the shortage of available organs. A few numbers of people are lucky enough to get an organ when they need it.

If we study the chart of available replaceable organs, we see that the scenery is too frustrating. The number of donated organs has been steady over the last few years. The number of people in need of an effective organ has risen significantly.

People wanted to know the reason. Specialists pointed out the emergence of new technology outbursts. They have also blamed the aging factor.

One possible explanation for this could be the fact that cadaver organs are less available these days. In the past, large healthy cadaveric organs used to come from the victims of car crashes. With modern road-mapping technologies, accident rates are now at a bottom low. Thus, the principal cadaveric organ source has almost collapsed.

With lessened availability has generated corruption. It often comes through artificial scarcity. A few people with core connections have started factoring into organ distribution.

The primary reasons for wanting to prevent individual worth from factoring into organ distribution are:

  • The argument is that individual worth does not determine medical needs.
  • The dilemma also arises from the confusion about authority. People often do not understand who makes decisions regarding the worthiness of an organ donor and the receiver.
  • The slippery slope: It involves the process of determining the worth of an individual. It also includes labeling someone worthy of a medical procedure. Often, wealthy people earn such recognition in exchange for money.

The ethics of organ donation

The job in front of an administration thus becomes tougher. People want equitable access to the transplant waiting list. They consider this as the cornerstone of a balanced organ allocation.

However, the placement process on the list can become a determinant of whether the allocators observed ethical principles in such assignment.

An evenly distributed waiting list would reflect the following characters:

  • Ethical rules. These include honesty and the duty not to harm.
  • The list mentions the clinical indicators. These include the cause of organ failure. 
  • The list also mentions any co-morbidity existence.
  • Psychological factors. These include financial and social support to the patient and adherence of the patient.

All those factors briefly outline the fundamental justice cornerstones. These include honesty, integrity, and utility, and justice.

Factors like Blood groups and policies help accept or decline the application to receive an organ.

Organ Transplantation-Legal, Social and Ethical issues

Critics have aroused different points regarding the validity of organ transplantation. Besides legal, there is the civic question too. The latter are mostly related to the ethics behind such limb transference.

Eligibility accession

The primary question is about the eligibility determination in cases of both the donors and the recipients.

The general process for eligibility accession includes:

• A physician refers to a patient as a potential candidate for organ transplantation. The transplant unit receives the candidate as an end-stage candidate.

• The desired outcome in organ transplant depends highly on the ability of the patient to adhere to medical therapy. The multi-disciplinary team in the organ movement unit often selects a candidate based on this criterion.

Critics question the first policy. They think that people with fragile appendages should also come into eligibility conditioning. 

The dilemma about the suitability of organs

People should have the right to know whether the clinics place the donated organs in the rightly-matched bodies. 

The potential recipients receive support from a multi-disciplinary team. 

It keeps the patient’s family informed of developments and timelines. The team members should include those with relevant experience and expertise. 

Organ allocation procedure

Organ allocation is a complex and time-critical process. 

Various factors influence it. These include medical need, urgency, donor/recipient suitability, and logistical. 

A strict guideline should guide the whole process. The systems should promote both utility and equity of access when it comes to organ transplantation for individuals.

Maintaining human rights

Respect for human rights is also relevant to health policies development and implementation. Policies, laws, and practices should also appear in conformation.

These also include those relating to the allocation of health resources too.

The right to a standard of living adequate is a must for the health and wellbeing of a person. International Law has also recognized the donor-recipient since UNO came into existence.

The Last words

Individual transplant center arranges for the donation formalities. They work by following their institutional guidelines. Else, they can also check for national protocol. Each of the clinics keeps an independent donor advocate. The person acts with the appointed multi-disciplinary team. They will let you know about the benefits and interests of becoming a limb subscriber.


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