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Auther : Vidya Jagtap Date : 2020-11-22 16:00:42

Category : Healthcare IT


Heart Valve Replacement

A valve replacement surgery includes replacing a damaged valve in your heart with a mechanical valve or a tissue valve. a replacement valve will relieve the strain and aims to ease symptoms like breathlessness and pain.


India being the most affected country when it comes to cardiovascular diseases among the world, demands advanced medical procedure and regular technology update from time to time. One such procedure is the Heart Valve Replacement Surgery, which usually takes place when a person's heart's valves are diseased or damaged to a certain extent. This surgery helps in correcting the problems that could be caused by dysfunctional heart valves.

How would one assess that he/she is in the need of such surgery? The prominent symptoms for valve problems could be the following: -

  • Dizziness/ Fainting
  • Swollen Abdomen, Feet, or Ankles
  • Palpitations and Chest Pains
  • Short- breathiness
  • Fatigue, Difficult to maintain regular productivity

 

If a person starts experiencing these symptoms, he/ she should immediately consult a physician. When we discuss heart valve replacement surgery, the prime question is "Why do we need it?". The answer to that would be that, there are times when the valves don't open/ close properly which disrupts the process of pumping blood effectively.

 Based on the valve problems, there are 3 major causes, that are enumerated below:

  1. Stenosis: In this case, the valve flaps become very rigid and they may stick together. This results in a decline in the blood flow.
  2. Regurgitation: This condition talks about leaky valves, where the blood leaks backward into the heart due to prolapsing.
  3. Atresia: A blockage is caused due to the clustering of tissues, which hinders the valve formation, eventually affecting the blood flow between different chambers of the heart. 

Based on the structure of the heart, the heart valve replacement surgery comprises of the following sites:

  1. Pulmonary Valve Replacement- The distinction between the pulmonary artery and the right ventricle is done by the pulmonary valve. The pulmonary artery carries blood to the lungs for oxygenation. This procedure is usually required if a person is suffering from stenosis.
  2. Mitral Valve Replacement- It is on the left side of the heart and is an inward flowing valve. It allows blood to enter into the left ventricle from the left atrium. The need for surgery arises if the valve doesn't open/ shut properly, causing leakage of blood.
  3. Aortic Valve Replacement- The aortic valve is on the left half of the heart and functions as an outward flowing valve. Its responsibility is to permit blood to leave the left ventricle, which is the heart's fundamental pumping chamber. It also functions as a site to close so that blood doesn't leak back.
  4. Double Valve Replacement- The mitral valve and aortic valve comprise the entire left side of the heart. When both these valves or the complete left side of the heart needs to be replaced, this surgery is required. It is unconventional for such a phenomenon to occur, which is why the mortality rate of this procedure is slightly higher than the other procedures.

 The conventional techniques used for heart valve replacement surgeries would be the use of the following:

Donor Tissue: Commonly known as the "Tissue Valve" Replacement Surgery, it includes tissue coming from a donor. The donor tissue could either be a human or an animal tissue. 

Mechanical Valve: The insertion of a firm valve made of tensile materials for a long term benefit is one of the most primitive ways in which a valve replacement surgery is done.

 Ross Procedure: This procedure is also known as the "borrowing valve" procedure, as it involves positioning your healthy valve in the place of the damaged one.

 TAVR: Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement Surgery is one of the preferred ways of surgery as it is less invasive than the rest. Other methods involve open-heart surgery. As this technique is less invasive, it adds on to the advantages of hospital management in the aspects of the duration of stay, recovery time, and reduced infection probability.

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