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Auther : Vidya Jagtap Date : 2021-01-17 04:50:33

Category : treatment


Prostate cancer treatment cost in India

Find Prostate Cancer Treatment India. Second Opinion; Treatment Methods; Surgery; Radiation Therapy; Hormone TherapyEtc. The average cancer care cost may be range from 2000 USD to 5000 USD as per the hospital's facilities and location. 


Prostate cancer is a major cause of cancer in males. This condition is majorly seen in males who are above 60 years of age but recently is seen to be affecting men of much younger age groups. Commonly seen symptoms in this type of cancer are enlargement of the gland (benign/ non-cancerous).

The cancerous lesion progresses unrushed and originally remains within the region of the organ. Unfortunately, sometimes, the growth is swift and thus may extend quickly to various other organs. The lesion may spread to local tissues around the gland, lymph, and distanced sites, most common of them being bones. Detection of the lesion in its earlier stages gives the patient the chance to select from a variety of options, which have amazing outcomes.

Symptoms

The early symptoms of prostate cancer are not different from those of non-cancerous enlargement (BPH). However, if any of the following symptoms (one or more) have been seen developing for two or more weeks then medical assistance should be taken.

• Sudden weight loss

• Excessive urination

• Trouble in starting or stopping when urinating

• Frequent urination, more commonly at night

• Burning sensation while ejaculating or urinating

• Erectile dysfunction

• Blood in urine/semen

• Irregular bowel habit

• Exhaustion

• Hip pain, back pain, or pelvic pain

Test conducted:

• Prostate-specific antigen (PSA)

• Digital rectal exam (DRE)

• Transrectal Ultrasound (Gleason Score conducted on the biopsy tissues)

• PET CT, MRI, CT, or Bone scan followed by Biopsy

Causes

Like other types of cancer, the precise cause of prostate cancer has not been specified yet. Though, in most of the cases, there is seen to be an influence of multiple factors, which count the following.

• Obesity

• Race

• Family history

• Older age

• Geographical location (Northwestern Europe, Australia, Caribbean, and North

America)

• Vulnerability to certain environmental toxins

• Swelling of the prostate

• Consumption of high fatty diet

• Low levels of Vit. D

• Tobacco consumption (Smoking)

Types

The cell in which cancer started is known by the name of the cancerous lesion. This information combined with the following helps in determining the lesion.

1. The grade (of the cancer cells)

2. The stage (the spread and size of the cancer cells) Classification depending on the type of cell involved in the lesion:

• Acinar adenocarcinoma

Cancer has developed from the gland cells that cover the periphery of the prostate. This type of lesion is the most commonly seen.

• Ductal adenocarcinoma

This subtype in prostate lesions starts in the cell lining the ducts/ tubes. Ductal adenocarcinoma has a faster growth pattern than Acinar adenocarcinoma.

• Transitional cell (or urothelial) cancer

This begins with the tubes that carry the urine outside of the body. It mostly develops from the bladder and then unfurls into the prostate region. But very occasionally does it begin in the prostate and then unfurling at the start of the bladder and adjacent tissues.

• Squamous cell cancer

The development of this cancerous lesion begins from the flat cells that cover the prostate. This type of cancer spreads more rampantly than that of the adenocarcinomas of the prostate gland.

• Small cell prostate cancer

This is of neuroendocrinal type in nature and it consists of small round cells.

• Other rare cancers

o Sarcoma

o Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs)

Stages:

o Stage I – Lesion is localized.

o Stage II – It is in a more advanced form than stage I. Also, the lesion is still confined well within the gland. This stage is further subdivided into 2A and 2B.

o Stage III – In this stage the lesion is no more confined to the mass of the gland and might also be present in the seminal vesicles.

o Stage IV – Cancer has spread to other organs and tissues.

Treatment

High intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU)

It uses high-frequency energy to burn and erode the cancer cells. The ultrasound waves are focused on the tissues, leading to the heating up and tissue death. As it is a non-invasive procedure there is no patient stay required at the hospital. Also, as the procedure is non-invasive hence the patient recovery rate is seen to be much faster.

Robotic Surgery

This type of technique is advanced in which the surgical tools are held via robotic arms. Here the advantage is that the surgery is very precise thus there is a major reduction of risk that is attached to the operation.

Cyberknife treatment

Under this advancement of the procedure, the patient is asked to lay down and the breathing pattern is kept normal as the cyberknife finds the area of the cancerous lesion and removes

it without destruction of any surrounding tissues. The treatment takes 4-5 days to complete.

Laser Surgery

This is considered the top choice. It is of minimal invasion, as a channel is opened to the prostate through the penis without doing any incision into the abdomen. Thus, helping the patient is better urination overall with a much better stream. Whereas, in laser prostate surgery, then the cancerous tissue segment is burnt under direct laser point.

Radical prostatectomy

This type of surgical advancement deals with the removal of the entire prostate along with its surrounding tissues such as seminal vesicles and a few lymph nodes. This can proceed with laparoscopic or open surgery. The prostate is removed by making a cut in the abdomen or by cutting the testicles. Post-operation a rubber catheter is inserted to make a passage for the urine up until the healing process is completed.

Laparoscopic radical prostatectomy

This is done using a tube which is fixed with a camera. Tiny cuts are made around the tumor, the tumor and surrounding tissue are removed with a thin tool. This procedure is carried

under general anesthesia.

External beam radiotherapy

A high radiation dose is concentrated in the prostate region. The area within 1-2 cm of the prostate region is also affected by the radiations.

Brachytherapy

Uses a much higher dose of radiation but is concentrated on the lesion without doing any harm to the nearby healthy region. The brachytherapy seeds are inserted using hollow needles. This may be used alone or along with radiations. The seeds being non-harmful to the body may not be removed or sometimes revoked eventually.

Hormone therapy

Hormones control the growth of the body, are naturally present. As prostate cancer depends on testosterone for its growth, then lowering the levels of testosterone can decrease the chances of a sudden prostate lesion coming back after the surgery.

Chemotherapy

This includes medication that destroys out the cancer cells. This is required when hormone therapy is not being able to control cancer or when cancer is spread to other parts of

the body.

Cryotherapy

Use of a device to subzero and flush the cancerous lesion. This surgery can be used as an early treatment measure for stage I.

Before Procedure

6-8 weeks before the surgery

Schedule: Pre-operative testing needs to be done not earlier than 6 weeks before the operative surgery date.

Male kegel exercises should be performed as they provide strength to the pelvic floor muscles thus better stemming the urine flow.

7 days before the surgery

• Discontinuation of aspirin products.

• Discontinuation of ibuprofen

• Discontinuation of herbal supplements

• Discontinuation of Vitamin E

• Incase Warfarin or Coumadin has been prescribed, ask the prescribing doctor if it is okay to discontinue them before the surgery

2 days before the surgery

Alcohol or any beverages containing alcohol should not be consumed

1 day before the surgery

Do not eat anything 14 hours before the surgery and do the fleets enema before 5 hours of the surgery.

0 day of the surgery

If any of the following medicines are prescribed to you, then they may be consumed before the surgery.

• BP medicine

• Insulin

• Heart medicine

• Anti-Seizure medicine

After procedure

• Patients can be discharged 24 hours after the surgery.

• Catheter is given with the patient.

• Patients should not try to remove the catheter on their own.

• Patients should be driven back home as they are not allowed to drive for themselves.

Recovery

• Patients return to their complete functionality within the time of a month of performing the procedure.

• Recovery within one week is seen in outpatient procedures.

• Scars can be prevented by not allowing the infection to grow within the incision.

• There is a significant risk of impotency and erectile dysfunction.

Frequently Asked Questions

What is prostate cancer?

It is a gland present in men that produces seminal fluid which helps in the mobilization of the sperm.

How to know if prostate cancer growth is fast or slow?

Neither prognosis nor differentiation is possible, as it sustains as harmless all through without being noticeable.

What is Prostate cancer screening?

This is a method for the detection of prostate cancer. Cancer screening for prostate can be done in the following two ways:

• Digital Rectal Exam (DRE)

• Prostate-Specific Antigen Test- Blood Test

How is the prevention of prostate cancer done?

Similar to other cancers, the cause is not known, hence you cannot work on it.

• Nutrition planning

• Physical activities

• Pranayama or light yoga

• Getting ample sleep

• Stop smoking

Is prostate cancer curable?

Yes, with the advancement in technology, men diagnosed with prostate cancer in the developing stages would be cured.

Does prostate cancer affect sexual ability?

No, if treatment is taken in the early stages then it has shown not to be affecting the sexual ability.

Pros and Cons

Advantages

• Acts as a permanent cure for cancer.

• Takes a single session.

• Early diagnosis will not affect sexuality.

• Proper discharge of urine.

Disadvantages

• Recovery time is required.

• Risk of urinary incontinence.

• Bladder pain.

• Pain and swelling in the rectum.

Risks

• Requires time before returning to work.

• Rectal bleeding

• Rectal ulcers

• Slight risk of anxiety and stress as knowing that the patient has a cancerous lesion but not treating it.

 

 

 

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