Category : Procedure
Colon cancer is sometimes called colorectal cancer. Find Colon Cancer Treatment, Symptoms, Prevention & Survival Rate, cost, hospitals, and Surgeon.
Colorectal Cancer (CRC) is one of the leading causes of mortality in India as well as worldwide. India has relatively a lower prevalence of CRC when it comes to comparison with other countries, but is currently the 7th major reason in India for mortality. Recent data shows that out of 100 patients, the mortality rate is 74%, i.e. 74/100 patients died.
Factors such as demographics, resource distribution over different areas, poverty, nutrition management, and education come into play when Colon Cancer is discussed.
One of the major determinants, to understand whether a person has CRC, would be the stool examination- it could be black (tar-like). Rectal bleeding is one of the classic symptoms of CRC. Other symptoms would include inconsistent bowel- diarrhea or constipation, abdominal cramps, gastritis, bloating, fatigue, and weakness. Some studies segregate the stages for CRC starting from Stage 0 to Stage 4, where they increase concerning the extent of spread.
Stage 0 is restricted to the lining of the colon.
Stage 1 is the spread of cancer to the mucosal layer.
Stage 2A is the growth of cancer through the abdominal wall, Stage 2B is spread to the wall of the colon, Stage 2C is the start of the invasion of nearby structures.
Stage 3A includes spread into the lymph nodes, Stage 3B deals with the growth of cancer into the bowel wall, Stage 3C is the penetration of cancer into more lymph nodes.
Stage 4A includes the spread of cancer into a body part, Stage 4B explains the spread to more than one organ, Stage 4C spreads to the peritoneum.
CRC is fairly a recent type of cancer that has come into the picture, so the investigation of causes are still under study, but some of the causes could be due to genetic changes or mutations in the body, which could affect cell growth or its inhibition, which leads to ‘polyp’ formation (cell accumulation on the lining of the colon). Other important factors would the age, where it is likely that after the age of 50, you might develop it. Lifestyle contributes immensely, such as smoking habits, obesity, heavy-meat consumption, hypertension, diabetes, etc. Any family member with a family history of CRC would be at risk, as it is inheritable.
CRC has the following types- Adenocarcinoma, Carcinoid Tumors, Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors, Colorectal Lymphoma, Leiomyosarcomas, and Melanomas, out of which, the first one is the most prevalent. Adenocarcinoma accounts for 95% of colon cancer cases and deals with the tumors formed on the colon lining. The formation of Polyps happens here.
Carcinoid Tumors deal with tumor formations in the cells that produce hormones in the intestine. They amount to 1% of cases of CRC. Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors deal with tumors anywhere in the GI tract, other than the colon. They amount to 1% of cases of CRC.
Colorectal Lymphoma deals with cancer of the immune system and is more closely associated with lymph nodes, but its initiation could be in the colon. Leiomyosarcomas deals with the cancer of smooth muscles and its prevalence are less than 0.1% in CRC. Melanomas, commonly known as skin cancer could occur in the colon.
The treatment of CRC consists of a very complex and detailed framework that would include both conventional and specific treatments when it comes to CRC. Different types and stages of cancer change the course of treatment, and other factors that affect the treatment strategy are side effects for every different patient, preferences, current health, nutrition, and diet management. Conventional Treatments would include Radiation therapy, Surgical treatments, Clinical medication- Immunotherapy, Chemotherapy & Targeted Therapy, and Stage- oriented therapy.
Surgery is the physical removal of the tumor, which is performed by a specialized surgeon. The other surgical procedures would include Cryoablation (removal of parts from an organ), Laparoscopic procedures (probing devices put into abdomen to remove cancer), and Colostomy (Connection of colon to an abdominal wall for the exit of waste from the body).
Radiation therapy (Neoadjuvant therapy) uses energy beams to destruct the canceled cells. This procedure is used very commonly as it decreases the rate of tumor occurrence. Chemo-radiation treatment is frequently utilized in rectal malignancy before the medical procedure to maintain a strategic distance from a colostomy or decrease the opportunity that the disease will repeat. One examination found that chemoradiation treatment before medical procedure worked better and caused fewer results than a similar radiation treatment and chemotherapy given after a medical procedure. The principle benefits incorporated a slower pace of the malignancy returning to the zone where it began, fewer patients who required perpetual colostomies, and fewer issues with scarring of the inside where the radiation treatment was given.
Medication treatment includes the administration of drugs through oral or intravenous routes.
Chemotherapy, Immunotherapy, and Targeted therapy are a part of clinical therapy.
Chemotherapy includes drug utilization to finish off the cancer cells. They are scheduled usually post-surgery, to eradicate any residual cancer cells. An example of chemotherapy treatment would be a combination of oxaliplatin with capecitabine to treat colon cancer. Immunotherapy includes the strengthening of the immune system and defense mechanism of the body. The combination of Nivolumab & Ipilimumab would be an ideal therapy to exemplify checkpoint inhibitors for treating metastatic CRC.
Targeted therapies use a specific approach to treat CRC, in terms of the specific genes or proteins that are directly contributing to the increase of cancer cells. This includes ‘anti-angiogenesis therapy’ which discusses the formation of new blood vessels.
There are combined targeted therapies for very peculiar cancer growth. Example: Larotrectinib (Vitrakvi) and entrectinib (Rozlytrek) are a kind of focused treatment that isn't explicit to a particular sort of malignancy however centers around a particular hereditary change called an NTRK combination. This kind of hereditary change is uncommon however is found in a scope of malignant growths, including colorectal disease.
One of the major demerits of CRC is the recurrence, and it is most likely to happen. Usually, after the surgical procedures, patients are kept under observation for 2-6 weeks post-operative procedures. Patients with colon cancer as more likely to develop a “second cancer” (after recurrence) which could be kidney cancer, anal cancer, stomach cancer, etc.
After the treatment of colon cancer, regular follow-ups, proper and timely medications, a strict watch on food intake should, physical activity should be taken care of.
Bowel functions return to normal in very little time, which may mean leaving the clinics. For patients, more than 65, negligibly intrusive alternatives can improve the opportunity of endurance, and the medical procedure choices are safe for all patients.
Risks can be classified into 2 based on the topic of discussion. The first would be the people who are at risk of developing CRC.
People with more sedentary lifestyles, less active, smoking & drinking habits, or anyone with a family history of CRC or any inflammation on the bowel or related bowel diseases are more likely to have CRC in comparison to people who have an active lifestyle. The age would also affect as more the age, the greater the risk.
Another factor could be abnormal genetic mutations which could lead to the activation of certain substances in the body which could trigger tumor formation or abnormal cell growth and division.
Diseases like diabetes and hypertension contribute to why a person could be at risk of CRC. Race/ Ethnicity could also be one of the factors as in according to studies, CRC is more prevalent in African- Americans as compared to other races.
The second would the risks after surgery which could include infections post-surgery, recurrence of Colon cancer, or development of second cancer, which is not associated with colon cancer at all.
Reasons To Choose India For Colon Cancer Treatment
India has always been the hub of medical advancements with appropriate technological interventions, skilled professionals, and customized treatment options for different patients.
For CRC, the availability of top healthcare organizations and hospitals, with several generic medicines would be an ideal place to get the treatment done. The cost of surgery, hospital stay, medication, treatment, post-operative rehabilitation centers, and follow-ups would be cheap, with value-based and quality healthcare.
India is the most ideal objective for patients who are searching for the minimal cost of Colon Cancer Surgery/Treatment. The expense of Colon Cancer Surgery/Treatment in India is normally a small amount of the expense for a similar strategy and care in the US and other created nations. Looking at Colon Cancer Surgery/Treatment cost in India with a similar therapy technique in different nations, the cost for a medical procedure would be 30-50% lower. The expense can change contingent upon the kind of medical procedure required and other ailments of a patient.
What is Colon Cancer?
Colon cancer is the abnormal growth of cells on the lining of the colon, which usually occurs in adults over the age of 50 years.
What are the symptoms of Colon Cancer?
Symptoms would include rectal bleeding, stool color change, cramps, abdominal uneasiness, bloating, etc.
What are the risk factors for Colon Cancer?
Risk factors such as age, ethnicity, lifestyle and related diseases such as diabetes, obesity, smoking and drinking habits, the extent of physical exercises performed, diet intake would affect a person’s risk of developing Colon Cancer.
What are polyps?
The cells on the lining of the colon are indicative of Colon/ Colorectal Cancer.
What is Colonoscopy?
A procedure to determine any alterations in the large intestine, which helps in detecting Colon Cancer.
How is Colonoscopy performed?
Consume liquids before the procedure to flush out everything. The doctor gives a sedative while the procedure, where a thin tube with a camera is inserted into the colon.
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